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Food Waste to Energy: An Overview of Sustainable Approaches for Food Waste Management and Nutrient Recycling (BMRI2017-2370927)

  • Text
  • Anaerobic
  • Methane
  • Microbial
  • Organic
  • Biogas
  • Bioresource
  • Reported
  • Environmental
  • Bacteria
  • Yield
  • Overview
  • Sustainable
  • Approaches
  • Nutrient
  • Recycling
Review Article Food Waste to Energy: An Overview of Sustainable Approaches for Food Waste Management and Nutrient Recycling Kunwar Paritosh, 1 Sandeep K. Kushwaha, 2 Monika Yadav, 1 Nidhi Pareek, 3 Aakash Chawade, 2 and Vivekanand Vivekanand 1 1 Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017, India Department of Plant Breeding, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 101, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden 3 Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Central University of Rajasthan Bandarsindri, Kishangarh, Ajmer, Rajasthan 305801, India 2 Correspondence should be addressed to Vivekanand Vivekanand; vivekanand.cee@mnit.ac.in Received 14 November 2016; Revised 29 December 2016; Accepted 12 January 2017; Published 14 February 2017 Academic Editor: José L. Campos Copyright © 2017 Kunwar Paritosh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Food wastage and its accumulation are becoming a critical problem around the globe due to continuous increase of the world population. The exponential growth in food waste is imposing serious threats to our society like environmental pollution, health risk, and scarcity of dumping land. There is an urgent need to take appropriate measures to reduce food waste burden by adopting standard management practices. Currently, various kinds of approaches are investigated in waste food processing and management for societal benefits and applications. Anaerobic digestion approach has appeared as one of the most ecofriendly and promising solutions for food wastes management, energy, and nutrient production, which can contribute to world’s ever-increasing energy requirements. Here, we have briefly described and explored the different aspects of anaerobic biodegrading approaches for food waste, effects of cosubstrates, effect of environmental factors, contribution of microbial population, and available computational resources for food waste management researches.

4 BioMed Research

4 BioMed Research International Table 1: Composition of FW reported in various literatures. Moisture Total solid Volatile solid Total sugar Starch Cellulose Lipids Protein Ash References 75.9 24.1 NR 42.3 29.3 NR NR 3.9 1.3 [14] 80.3 19.7 95.4 59.8 NR 1.6 15.7 21.8 1.9 [15] 82.8 17.2 89.1 62.7 46.1 2.3 18.1 15.6 NR [16] 75.2 24.8 NR 50.2 46.1 NR 18.1 15.6 2.3 [16] 85.7 14.3 98.2 42.3 28.3 NR NR 17.8 NR [17] 82.8 17.2 85.0 62.7 46.1 2.3 18.1 15.6 NR [18] 61.3 38.7 NR 69.0 NR NR 6.4 4.4 1.2 [19] 81.7 18.3 87.5 35.5 NR NR 24.1 14.4 NR [20] 81.5 18.5 94.1 55.0 24.0 16.9 14.0 16.9 5.9 [21] 81.9 14.3 98.2 48.3 42.3 NR NR 17.8 NR [22] Table 2: Anaerobic digestion processes of food waste for methane production. Waste Inoculum Vessel type Duration (d) HRT (d) CH 4 yield %CH (ml/g VS) 4 References FW Bioreactor with .5 L working Cow manure 29 1 530 70 [23] volume FW Anaerobic SS Pilot scale 5 tons/d 90 NR 440 70 [24] FW Bioreactor with 12 L working Anaerobic SS volume 60 20 NR 68.8 [25] FW Bioreactor with 4.5 L working SS volume 200 1–27 520 90 [26] FW NR 900 m 3 tank volume 426 80 399 62 [27] FW Anaerobic SS CSTR with 3 L working volume 225 16 455 NR [28] FW Digester with 800 ml working NR volume 30 Batch 410 66 [29] FW Anaerobic SS Batch 28 10–28 440 73 [30] FW SS CSTR with 10 L working volume 150 5 464 80 [31] FW Landfill soil and cow manure Batch 5 L 60 20–60 220 NR [32] Substrate (i) Carbohydrates (ii) Protein (iii) Fats Soluble organic compounds Hydrolysis Acidogenesis (i) Sugar (ii) Amino acids (iii) Fatty acids Acid formation (i) Alcohols Acetogenesis (ii) Carbonic Acid (iii) Volatile fatty acids Methanogenesis Acetic acid formation (i) CH 3 COOH (ii) NH 3 , H 2 , CO 2 , NH 4 , H 2 S Biogas (i) CH 4 (ii) CO 2 Figure 3: Anaerobic digestion phases.

BioMed Research International 5 Table 3: Microorganism cooperation in organic matter degradation [33, 34]. Reaction Type Microorganism Active Genera Product Fermentation Hydrolytic bacteria Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Propionibacterium, Sphingomonas, Sporobacterium, Megasphaera, Bifidobacterium Simple sugars, peptides, fatty acids Acidogenesis Syntropic bacteria Ruminococcus, Paenibacillus, Clostridium Volatile fatty acids Acetogenesis Acetogenic bacteria Desulfovibrio, Aminobacterium, Acidaminococcus CH 3 COOH Methanogenesis Methanogens (Archaea) Methanosaeta, Methanolobus, Methanococcoides, Methanohalophilus, Methanosalsus, Methanohalobium, Halomethanococcus, Methanolacinia, Methanogenium, Methanoculleus CH 4 carbon dioxide reduction carried out by methanogens [45, 46]. CH 3 COOH → CH 4 + CO 2 (3) Methane can be generated in two ways by two types of methanogens: (a) acetoclastic methanogens that produce methane from acetic acid and (b) hydrogenotrophic methanogens that utilize hydrogen to reduce carbon dioxide. CO 2 +4H 2 → CH 4 +3H 2 O (4) Table 3 summarizes genera active in anaerobic digestion and the microorganism cooperation in organic matter degradation. 3. Food Waste as a Substrate Degradability of food waste used as substrate mainly depends upon its chemical composition. It is quite challenging to know the exact percentage of different components of the complexsubstratebecauseofitsheterogeneousnature.Various researchers have investigated the potential of food waste as a substrate for biomethanation. Viturtia et al. [47] inspected two stages of anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes and achieved 95.1% volatile solids (VS) conversion with a methane yield of 530 mL/g VS. In a study performed by Lee et al. [23], FW was converted into methane using a 5-L continuous digester, resulting in 70% VS conversion with a methane yield of 440 mL/g VS. Gunaseelan [24] used around 54 different types of food and reported methane yield ranged from 180 to 732 mL/g VS depending on the origin of wastes. Cho et al. [48] reported 472 ml/g VS methane yield with 86% anaerobic biodegradability of the Korean food waste. Yong et al. [49] have reported 0.392 m 3 CH 4 /kg-VS when canteen food waste mixed with straw in the ratio of 5 : 1. Food waste as a substrate has potential to provide high biogas yieldincomparisontocowmanure,whey,pigmanure,corn silage, and so forth [50]. 4. Key Parameters Affecting Biomethanation For anaerobes to work with high metabolic activity, it is imperative to have controlled environmental conditions. The methanogenic bacteria are very sensitive towards unfavorable survival conditions. Therefore, it is vital to maintain optimal condition to flourish the process of methanation. Biomethanation process primarily depends upon seeding, temperature, pH, carbon-nitrogen (C/N) ratio, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), organic loading rate (OLR), alkalinity, total volatile solids (VS), and hydraulic retention time (HRT) and nutrients concentration. It was also reported that the concentrations of water soluble material such as sugar, amino acids, protein, andmineralsdecreaseandwaternonsolublematerialssuchas lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose increase in content [51]. 4.1. Seeding. Seeding may speed up the stabilization of the digestion process. The most commonly used materials for inoculation are digested sludge from sewage plant, landfill soil, and cow dung slurry. Itwasreportedthattheuseofgoatrumenfluid[52]as inoculum at the rate of 8% (v/v) is very efficient for biogas production. 4.2. Temperature. Methanogenesis has been reported from 2 ∘ C in marine sediments to over 100 ∘ Cingeothermalareas [53]. Methanogens thrive best at around 35 ∘ C(mesophilic) and 55 ∘ C (thermophilic), respectively. Environmental temperature is also a huge concern for anaerobic microbial culture as change of acetic acid to methane depends mostly upon temperature. It has been reported that the optimum range of temperature is 35–40 ∘ C for mesophilic activity and 50–65 ∘ C for thermophilic activity [54, 55]. Bouallagui et al. [56] have reported that, at 4% total solid, methane content was found to be 58%, 65%, and 62% at temperatures 20 ∘ C, 35 ∘ C, and 55 ∘ C, respectively. At 8% total solid, methane content was found to be 57% and 59% at 35 ∘ Cand55 ∘ C, respectively. In a study reported by Kim et al. [57], methane content was found to be 65.6%, 66.2%, 67.4%, and 58.9% at temperatures 40 ∘ C, 45 ∘ C, 50 ∘ C, and 55 ∘ C, respectively. In another experiment performed by Gou et al. [58] codigestion

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