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Food Waste to Energy: An Overview of Sustainable Approaches for Food Waste Management and Nutrient Recycling (BMRI2017-2370927)

  • Text
  • Anaerobic
  • Methane
  • Microbial
  • Organic
  • Biogas
  • Bioresource
  • Reported
  • Environmental
  • Bacteria
  • Yield
  • Overview
  • Sustainable
  • Approaches
  • Nutrient
  • Recycling
Review Article Food Waste to Energy: An Overview of Sustainable Approaches for Food Waste Management and Nutrient Recycling Kunwar Paritosh, 1 Sandeep K. Kushwaha, 2 Monika Yadav, 1 Nidhi Pareek, 3 Aakash Chawade, 2 and Vivekanand Vivekanand 1 1 Centre for Energy and Environment, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302017, India Department of Plant Breeding, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 101, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden 3 Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Central University of Rajasthan Bandarsindri, Kishangarh, Ajmer, Rajasthan 305801, India 2 Correspondence should be addressed to Vivekanand Vivekanand; vivekanand.cee@mnit.ac.in Received 14 November 2016; Revised 29 December 2016; Accepted 12 January 2017; Published 14 February 2017 Academic Editor: José L. Campos Copyright © 2017 Kunwar Paritosh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Food wastage and its accumulation are becoming a critical problem around the globe due to continuous increase of the world population. The exponential growth in food waste is imposing serious threats to our society like environmental pollution, health risk, and scarcity of dumping land. There is an urgent need to take appropriate measures to reduce food waste burden by adopting standard management practices. Currently, various kinds of approaches are investigated in waste food processing and management for societal benefits and applications. Anaerobic digestion approach has appeared as one of the most ecofriendly and promising solutions for food wastes management, energy, and nutrient production, which can contribute to world’s ever-increasing energy requirements. Here, we have briefly described and explored the different aspects of anaerobic biodegrading approaches for food waste, effects of cosubstrates, effect of environmental factors, contribution of microbial population, and available computational resources for food waste management researches.

10 BioMed Research

10 BioMed Research International Complex organic compound Organic acid neutral compound Hydro producing acetogenic bacteria (II) Hydrolytic bacteria (I) H 2 /CO 2 one-carbon compound Homo acetogenic bacteria (III) Acetic acid Methanogenic bacteria (IV) CH 4 /CO 2 Figure 4: Significance of the microbial population in anaerobic digester. sequenced reads were pair assembled using PANDAseq and mothur software was used to align and filter and trim and remove chimeras and classify and assign taxonomy. The result revealed the domination of hydrolytic and fermentative phyla in digester with no digestate recirculation, while syntrophic acetogenic bacteria dominated the digester with recirculation. Guo et al. [149] carried out comparative analysis of the microbial community response to increasing OLR in mesophilic and thermophilic reactor and reported that mesophilic reactor had greater richness of microorganisms in comparison to thermophilic reactor. They also reported the dominance of Methanosaeta in archaeal community in mesophilic reactor while presence of Methanothermobacter and Methanoculleus were favored in thermophilic reactor. 11. Metagenomic Tool and Techniques for Advance Practices In a fast-growing world, food wastage and its management are one of the major challenges faced by our society due to inherited high risk for human health and increasing environmental burdens. Strategic use of biodegradation processing on food waste can turn out into multiple societal benefits. Production of energy, that is, biogas through biomass of food waste, could be of major interest for easy storage and transport. Secondly, it reduces the hazardous effects on environment through the multiple layered food wastes processing and management. Production of soil additives and liquid fertilizers from organic food waste will be direct incentive from food waste management. Various 16S and 18S rRNAbased fragmented studies were performed through researcher for waste management treatment and microbial communities were identified from all the three taxonomic units of the microbial world, that is, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. In total, 4133 methanogenic bacteria were classified into Archaea domain and Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota are most visible group [33]. Methanogens have huge morphological diversity: cocci (Methanococcus), Spirillaceae (Methanospirillum), Sarcina (Methanosarcina), rods(Methanobacterium), short rods (Methanobrevibacter), andfiliforms(Methanothrix) [150]. Acetotrophic methanogens are the main obligatory anaerobes belonging to genus Methanosarcina which are involved in the processing of acetate to methane and carbon dioxide. Methanobacteriaceae family have been found associated with hydrogen binding methanogenic bacteria. Methanosphaera stadtmaniae and Methanobrevibacter wolinii are the two main groups of hydrogenotrophic microorganisms participating in anaerobic processing of fruit and vegetable [151]. The knowledge of the link between taxonomical and functional diversity and species richness can be a key for better understanding of ecosystem functioning in waste food treatment. Molecular methods like PCR, RFLP, microarrays, and sequencing have been utilized in the field of waste management. But these methods have own limitations for large scale functional characterization of ecological systems. Recently, captured metagenomics demonstrated the potential of functional characterization of microbial communities of agricultural soil on a large scale through NGS. Application of these approaches for food waste management can improve our understanding about treatment and enhance quality of treatment and management products [152]. Microbial communities can be used in more efficient manner in food waste management through exploration of available microbial resources and strategic use of available advance metagenomics practices. 11.1. Microarrays. Microarray is a one of the easiest and powerful tools to characterize differences in gene content between organisms and gene expression. Microarray technique has become popular due to large scale sequencing of microbial genomes year after year. Hundreds of microbial microarray based studies have been

BioMed Research International 11 Table 6: Bioinformatics tools and data bases used for microbial community analysis. Database Feature description Web/open source Availability Microbial genome and metagenomic data resource IMG Integrated Microbial Genomes and Microbiome. Repository of 33,116 genome datasets and 4,615 microbiome dataset Yes/yes https://img.jgi.doe.gov/ MGDB Microbial genome database with 4742 genomes Yes/yes http://mbgd.genome.ad.jp/ ENSEMBL Access to over 40,000 Bacterial Genomes Yes/yes http://bacteria.ensembl.org/index.html RefSeq (microbial) Archaeal and bacterial repository at NCBI Reference Sequence Yes/yes https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/refseq/ Microarrays and gene expression database (M3D) Many Microbe Microarrays Database Yes/yes http://m3d.mssm.edu/ BμG@Sbase Microarray datasets for microbial gene expression Yes/yes http://bugs.sgul.ac.uk/bugsbase/tabs/experiment.php COLOMBOS Microbeonline POGO MicroScope AGeS: NMPDR MetaPathways: ShotgunFunctionalizeR MG-RAST MEGAN Collection of bacterial gene expression compendium. Yes/yes http://www.colombos.net/ Repository of 3707 genomes, gene expression data for 113 organisms Yes/yes http://www.microbesonline.org/ Taxonomic, Functional Annotation and Comparative Genomics Database of Pairwise-Comparisons Of Genomes and Orthologous genes Yes/yes http://pogo.ece.drexel.edu/about.php Microbial Genome Annotation & Analysis Platform Yes/yes https://www.genoscope.cns.fr/agc/microscope/home/ A Software System for Microbial Genome Sequence Annotation National Microbial Pathogen Data Resource for annotation, comparative genomics with an emphasis on the food-borne pathogens A pipeline for taxonomic and functional annotation from environmental sequence information. an R-package for functional comparison of metagenomes. automated analysis platform for metagenomes based on sequence data A comprehensive toolbox for interactively analyzing microbiome data Yes/yes http://www.bhsai.org/ages.html Yes/yes http://www.nmpdr.org/FIG/wiki/view.cgi Yes/yes http://hallam.microbiology.ubc.ca/MetaPathways/ Yes/yes http://shotgun.math.chalmers.se/ Yes/yes http://metagenomics.anl.gov/ No/yes http://ab.inf.uni-tuebingen.de/software/megan6/welcome/ Metabolic analysis and modelling tool and databases CellDesigner Metabolic pathway reconstruction and simulation Yes/yes http://www.celldesigner.org/ E-zyme Prediction of EC numbers from chemical transformation pattern Yes/yes http://www.genome.jp/tools/e-zyme/ Triton Tool for Enzyme Engineering Yes/yes www.ncbr.muni.cz/triton/ ECMDB E. coli Metabolme database Yes/yes http://ecmdb.ca/ MicrobesFlux: A web platform for genome reconstruction and constraint-based modelling Yes/yes http://www.microbesflux.org/

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